By Warren D. TenHouten
Founded upon the psychoevolutionary theories of Darwin, Plutchik and Izard, a normal socioevolutionary idea of the sentiments - affect-spectrum idea - classifies a large spectrum of the sentiments and analyzes them at the sociological, mental and neurobiological levels.
This neurocognitive sociology of the sentiments supersedes the key theoretical views built within the sociology of feelings via exhibiting basic feelings to be adaptive reactions to primary difficulties of lifestyles that have advanced into ordinary social relationships and which could expect occurrences of the full spectrum of basic, advanced secondary, and tertiary emotions.
Written via best social theorist Warren D. TenHouten, this booklet offers an encyclopaedic category of the feelings, describing forty-six feelings intimately, and offering a normal multilevel concept of feelings and social lifestyles. The scope of assurance of this key paintings is very topical and finished, and contains the improvement of feelings in youth, symbolic elaboration of advanced feelings, feelings administration, violence, and cultural and gender ameliorations. whereas basic feelings have truly outlined valences, this conception exhibits that complicated feelings obey no algebraic legislations and that each one feelings have either inventive and harmful potentialities.
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Extra resources for A General Theory of Emotions and Social Life
The resulting theory of the emotions, for this reason, will be termed affect-spectrum 24 Theories of primary and secondary emotions theory. This is a general theory, as claimed in the title, in that the sociorelational variables – the elementary forms of sociality, and the primary emotions proposed to be the prototypical adaptive reactions to life’s problems – are both culturally universal and based upon evolutionary neurobiology. The theory is then extended to include a deeper study of the relationship between rationality and the emotions.
These models share two assertions: (i) different persons have different set-points, so some persons have consistently higher levels of well-being and happiness than others; (ii) recent changes in fortune, such as losing a job or obtaining a pay raise, can have a major impact on well-being but as aspirations adjust to higher levels of achievement, then well-being will return, after a year or two, to its previous, normal set-point level (Costa et al. 1987). 34 The four pairs of opposite primary emotions These ﬁndings show that happiness must have a substantial inherited component.
However, set-point and aspiration-adjustment models notwithstanding, persons whose life experiences have been extremely harsh seem not only to return to their set-points but to exceed them. Those who have suffered the most are, with exceptions, happiest of all: adults who experienced the Great Depression are apt to be happier than those who did not; survivors of cancer showed greater happiness three years after treatment than matched controls (McIntosh and Martin 1992). An external threat or a personal catastrophe that has been endured, eluded, overcome, or destroyed, or an internal threat laid aside through satisfaction of a want, are apt to arouse fear and anger but can quickly lead to a state of well-being.
A General Theory of Emotions and Social Life by Warren D. TenHouten