By Andrew Brookes
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Additional info for Air War over Italy 1943-1945
17 He began first in Lorraine, where the duke was hostile to the cardinal and gave refuge to his enemies. 19 The following year, the French army occupied much of Alsace too, on the pretext of protecting it from the ravages of Swedish and Imperial armies. The cardinal next intended to disarm Savoy, whose new duke Victor-Amadeus had married Princess Marie-Christine, sister of Louis XIII. Everyone understood that the seizure of Pinerolo and its retention were clear signs that France intended to invade Italy.
Unlike his wily father-in-law, Créquy had no patience for cunning or dissimulation. ‘Viveva alla grande’, noted one potted biography of the general, who once deserted a siege to chase stags. 1650; also Guadenzio Claretta, Storia della Reggenza di Cristina di Francia, duchessa di Savoia (Turin, 1868), i. 148–50; Ercole Ricotti, Storia della monarchia piemontese (Florence, 1865), v. 85–9. Cardinal Richelieu’s War 37 Fig. 10. Charles de Gonzague (Carlo Gonzaga), Duke of Mantua, a reluctant participant in the French alliance hoping to recover Casale Monferrato from French control.
Louis XIII and Richelieu suddenly appeared in March 1629 with a French army, forcing Savoy to withdraw from the Spanish alliance, and relieved Casale with French reinforcements. Then Louis withdrew to quell a Protestant uprising in Northern Languedoc. Olivares instructed Ambrogio Spinola to recommence the siege of Casale Monferrato in the summer of 1629, in the teeth of fierce resistance from the Marshal Toiras in command of a mostly French garrison. Having practically vanquished the Protestant opponents in the Empire, Ferdinand II sent a large German Imperial army to lay siege to the capital Mantua in September 1629.
Air War over Italy 1943-1945 by Andrew Brookes