By Professor Dr. Dr. h. c. Hermann Haken, Professor Dr. Hans Christoph Wolf (auth.)

ISBN-10: 3642968139

ISBN-13: 9783642968136

ISBN-10: 3642968155

ISBN-13: 9783642968150

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**Additional info for Atomic and Quantum Physics: An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Experiment and Theory**

**Sample text**

The existence of isotopes was discovered and thoroughly investigated with the aid of mass spectroscopy. , the ratio of charge to mass. For this purpose one uses the deflection of ionized atoms moving through electric fields E and magnetic fields B. The oldest and most easily understood method is the parabola method of Thomson (1913). An ion beam from a gas discharge passes through the electric field of a condenser and a magnetic field B which is oriented parallel to the electric field (Fig. 2).

4. 1 Passage of Electrons Through Matter Beginning in the 1890s, Lenard investigated the attenuation of electron beams passing through matter. This attenuation can have two causes: the electrons can lose their energy by exciting or ionising atoms, or they can be elastically scattered and so change their directions and leave the beam. Lenard produced the beam by means of a cathode ray tube. Today, one would use thermionic emission as the electron source. Cathode t? Experimental __------rn-y-s--\~-----a,ffial p \ II r----+--t~ndow Pump Fig.

Solving for 1fr2 yields 2 . 1fr = ¢/vob. 6) If we consider only the motion perpendicular to the original beam direction, Newton's equation of motion reads dvJ. m--=FJ. dt 2Ze 2 1 . -sm¢. 41! co, we obtain dvJ. k B. d¢ J-dt=--Jsm¢-dt. 8) In order to determine the limits of the integral, we imagine the point A to be infinitely distant from the nucleus. Since now no Coulomb force acts, we have v1. = 0, and the angle ¢ = O. To determine the scattering angle ebetween the incident direction and the direction of the particle after scattering, we let point B (see Fig.

### Atomic and Quantum Physics: An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Experiment and Theory by Professor Dr. Dr. h. c. Hermann Haken, Professor Dr. Hans Christoph Wolf (auth.)

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