By GILBERT GOTTLIEB (Eds.)
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For example, several species of parasitic insects show evidence of olfactory or chemical conditioning, effected in the larval or pupal stage, which may in some cases determine the choice of the host on which they deposit their eggs in adulthood (Thorpe, 1939; Thorpe & Jones, 1937). Mealworms conditioned in the larval stage retain the conditioned response through metamorphosis and show evidence of its retention in adulthood (avoidance learning: Somberg, Happ, & Schneider, 1970; maze learning: Somberg, Happ, & Schneider, 1970; maze learning: Borsellino, Pierantoni, & Schieti-Cavazza, 1970; Von Borell du Vernay, 1942).
INTRODUCTION TO BEHAVIORAL EMBRYOLOGY 35 While it is always somewhat difficult to demonstrate the relevance of prenatal conditioning studies to events which occur during the usual course of embryonic development in a given species, the results of such studies certainly indicate (/) the capacity of the embryo's nervous system to react in an adaptive fashion to changes or contingencies in its immediate environment, (2) the early functional development of perception, and, in some cases, (3) the influence of embryonic experience on behavior in adulthood.
Cambridge University Press, 1929. Crain, S. M. Resting and action potentials of cultured chick embryo spinal ganglion. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1956, 104, 285-330. Crain, S. M. In M. R. Murray. Nervous tissues in vitro. In E. N. ), Cells and tissues in culture. Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press, 1965. Pp. 373^55. Crain, S. M. Bornstein, M. , & Peterson, E. R. Development of functional organization in cultured embryonic CNS tissues during chronic exposure to agents which prevent bioelectric activity.
Behavioral Embryology by GILBERT GOTTLIEB (Eds.)