By John N. Kraeuter and Michael Castagna (Eds.)
The difficult clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, is a vital advertisement, leisure and ecological inhabitant of coastal bays alongside the east and gulf coasts of the U.S.. This identify represents the 1st state-of-the-art precis of present wisdom of the demanding clam by means of specialists in a variety of disciplines. Containing a compendium of literature at the demanding clam, complete chapters on a variety of points of its biology in addition to summaries of information together with the grey literature in this economically very important species, this quantity represents a complete resource of organic info for managers and researchers attracted to shallow marine and estuarine ecosystems. examine scholars and bosses charged with conserving coastal ecosystems also will discover a wealth of history fabric. the 1st synthesis of obtainable details at the mercenaria mercenaria, this name is a reaction to the wishes of people considering tough clam aquaculture and scientists attracted to molluscan biology, coastal ocean ecology and related fields. Over 2300 records were synthesized, and bankruptcy authors have extra unpublished details in addition to new fabric.
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Extra resources for Biology of the Hard Clam
Note the slightly overlapping valves. All of these forms appear to represent variations of the conchological characters that occur throughout the range of the species and do not demarcate any particular geographic subspecies. Beyond the distinctive variation described above, there is some individual variation in shape, with slightly longer, blunter, or more quadrate specimens occurring occasionally (Figs. 9). According to Newcombe et al. (1938), the animals tend to grow thicker shells in warmer, more southerly waters.
Langdoni have distant, numerous, thick, elevated recurved concentric ribs, which are flattened posteriorly (Dall, 1900); the interstitial concentric striae are almost lamellose. A radial element is evident in the internal shell structure, but not externally. The prominent concentric lamellae resemble those of several Recent Lirophora species. A prototype of M. ) mercenaria and M. ) prototypa (Maury, 1924) appeared in the early Miocene in northeastern Brazil (Maury, 1924). Although the state of the fossils prevented description of the hinge, the sculpture, shape and size indicate a species very similar to M.
Parker (1949) records three species from the upper Oligocene. Addicott (1976) noted that Securella ranged through the Miocene and died out before the Quaternary at the end of the Pliocene. Fig. 17. Left valve of Securella ensifera (Dall) (UCMP 36096). 26 Fig. 18. From top to bottom, hinges of the left valves of Mercenaria (Securella) stimpsoni, Mercenaria (Mercenaria) mercenaria, and Placamen berrii (Wood). That Securella might be closely related to Mercenaria is not entirely a new idea. " In such conchological respects as profile, sculpture, hinge dentition, and pallial sinus, Securella resembles Mercenaria except that it lacks a rugose area on the nymph (Fig.
Biology of the Hard Clam by John N. Kraeuter and Michael Castagna (Eds.)