By Leslie Holmes
If now in decline because the tumultuous occasions of 1989, communism used to be surely the nice political flow of the 20th century--at its top, greater than a 3rd of the world's inhabitants lived lower than communist rule--and it really is nonetheless a robust strength in lots of parts of the realm, such a lot significantly within the People's Republic of China. what's communism? the place did the assumption come from and what attracted humans to it? Is there a destiny for communism? This Very brief Introduction considers those questions and extra within the seek to discover and comprehend this debatable political strength. Explaining the speculation in the back of its ideology, and interpreting the background and frame of mind in the back of its political, fiscal and social buildings, Leslie Holmes considers the evolution of communism from Marx's time, to its perform within the Bolshevik Revolution, to its cave in in 1989-91. Holmes highlights the interior dynamics, crises, and loss of life of communism as an international approach, and introduces the most important avid gamers within the communist international, together with Marx, Lenin, Stalin, and Mao.
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Additional info for Communism: A Very Short Introduction
This intolerance had become very visible already by late 1965, with the arrests of Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel for ‘defamation of the Soviet system’; they had pseudonymously smuggled and published satirical manuscripts abroad. Following a short trial in early 1966, Sinyavsky and Daniel were sentenced respectively to seven and ﬁve years’ detention in labour camps. This delivered a clear message that the relatively liberal artistic ‘thaw’ of the early 1960s was over. It also heralded the start of a policy of harassment of so-called dissidents in the USSR over the next few years.
By the end of that decade, Communists were in power in most of Eastern Europe and much of East Asia. Like the USA, the USSR did not enter World War II until 1941; like the USA, it did so as a reaction to invasion. But an important difference between the American and Soviet situations was that, 23 A brief history of communism in power Quite how many people lost their lives as a result of the Stalin Terror is still debated, and the precise ﬁgures will probably never be known. Part of the problem is that different analysts include or exclude different forms of death and suffering.
By the end of the 1960s, most of the rest of the world had to acknowledge that the 33 A brief history of communism in power Khrushchev’s (and the Soviet Union’s) international humiliation over the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, when the USSR had been forced by US President John F. Kennedy to abandon its plans to install nuclear warheads in Cuba, was only one among many reasons why other senior Soviet leaders plotted to remove him. He was blamed for the failure of the Virgin Lands campaign, and for substantial price increases for meat and butter in 1962.
Communism: A Very Short Introduction by Leslie Holmes