Designing Organic Syntheses: A Programmed Introduction to by WARREN STUART PDF

By WARREN STUART

ISBN-10: 0471996122

ISBN-13: 9780471996125

Teaches scholars to take advantage of the language of sythesis at once (utilizing the grammar of synthon and disconnection) instead of translating it into that of natural chemistry.

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Extra info for Designing Organic Syntheses: A Programmed Introduction to the Synthon Approach

Sample text

If a computer data acquisition system is used, the current integration is possible by software. In principle, a further inexpensive method is to work at constant cell voltage. But here the potentials of the working and of the counter electrode, and all voltage drops of the electrolytes and of the cell separator are included (see Fig. 2). Thus, in most cases, clearly defined conditions at the working electrode cannot be adjusted using this operation mode (nevertheless, because of its uncomplicated realization, it is applied in most technical electrolyses to achieve approximately the desired cell current).

7 potentials and overvoltages and of the ohmic voltage drops in the electrodes (electron conductors) and in the electrolytes, including cell separators (ion conductors). Operation with Constant Cell Current (Galvanostatic Operation) Constant current electrolysis is an easy way to operate an electrochemical cell. Usually, it is also applied in industrial scale electrolysis. For laboratory scale experiments, inexpensive power supplies for constant current operation are available (also a potentiostat normally can work in galvanostatic operation).

In practice, electroorganic conversions mostly are not simple reversible reactions. Often, they will include, for example, energy-rich intermediates, complicated reaction mechanisms, and irreversible steps. In this case, it is difficult to define E and it has only poor practical relevance. Then, a suitable value of the ‘‘redox potential’’ is used as a base for the design of an electroorganic synthesis. It can be estimated from measurements of the ‘‘peak potential’’ in cyclovoltammetry or of the ‘‘half-wave potential’’ in polarography (see Chapter 1).

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Designing Organic Syntheses: A Programmed Introduction to the Synthon Approach by WARREN STUART


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