By M. Fielding, M. Farrimond
This quantity brings jointly members from water regulators, and water providers in Europe and North the USA to debate the most concerns linked to achieving an economical stability among microbial and chemical hazards. Overviews of analysis are offered along illuminating case reviews of the sensible methods taken through water businesses and regulators on either side of the Atlantic.
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Extra info for Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: Current Issues
4. 5. 6. 7. D. Richardson, ‘Drinking Water Disinfection By-products’, Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis & Remediation, Vol. 3, pp. 1398-1421, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1998. J. C. Kopfler, ‘Health Effects of Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts’, AWWA Research Foundation, Denver, CO, 1991. H. -M. Kosma. Vaittinen, T. Vartianinen, E. KalisteKorhonen, S. K. Tuominen, J. Tuomisto, J. Nut. , 1997, 89,848. W. Pontius, J. Am. 88, 16. D. D. Thruston. W. S. W. , G. Majetich, Y . Zhang, Environ.
4 Although alternative disinfectants are gaining in popularity, in comparison to chlorine, there is relatively little known about the disinfection by-products that they produce. In the United States, ozone is currently used in more than 100 treatment plants, with more being designed and built; chlorine dioxide is used in more than 400 treatment plants; and chloramine is used in approximately 300 plants. S. EPA has initiated an extensive effort to determine the identity of DBPs from alternative disinfectants.
Therefore, the formation of iodo-organic compounds causing the pharmaceutical taste and odour cannot be expected in this case. 8 only). 5 h contact time. Therefore, the formation of iodo-organic compounds such as iodoform is probable. Nevertheless, it is remarkable that a longer chlorine contact time and a decreasing level of organic matter causes a higher rate of iodate formation (see values of E,03-in Table 3) which is comparable to the results of bromate formation by ozonation. The transformation of iodide into iodate and iodo-organic compounds by disinfection with chlorine should be a competed reaction like the bromate formation and so the application of simple models for the description of this process is not suitable.
Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: Current Issues by M. Fielding, M. Farrimond