By Alan R. Longhurst (Eds.)
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Extra info for Ecology of Tropical Oceans
Often, dynamic processes over the shelf-break result in a linear frontal system separating the water of the continental shelf from oceanic or slope water. Such fronts have local consequences for the distribution of plank ton and pelagic fish. The internal waves propagating along the horizontal density surfaces are frequently accompanied by linear, oily slick-lines at the sea surface parallel with the shelf-break. These alone are a good surface indication of the dynamic processes occurring below and have been widely observed in the tropical ocean, from the Timor Sea to the Gulf of Guinea.
During the same season but for a shorter period—just May to August— a less strong upwelling occurs on the eastern side of the Banda Sea, along Ekman Divergence and Other Forms of Coastal Upwelling 47 Fig. 10. Major features of the reversal of currents in the western Pacific archipelagos under the influence of the reversing m o n s o o n winds; crosses indicate divergence, circles are convergence areas. ) the shelf edge of the Arafura Sea, and surface temperatures drop about 2°C. Farther to the west, off Macassar, water from the Flores Strait and the Macassar Strait meet, to flow west into the Java Sea, and high surface salinities in June and July suggest upwelling in consequence.
A similar upwelling, though apparently not produc- Fig. 7. Wind-driven upwelling off the Gulf of Tehuantepec, M e x i c o ; grey scale in sea indicates surface temperature, lighter being warmer. (IRT satellite image from U . S . National Climatic Center, N O A A . ) 42 3. Circulation of Tropical Seas and Oceans ing such low surface temperatures, occurs in the Gulf of Panama, induced by Atlantic winds passing through a gap in the cordillera, and assisted by an offshore anticyclonic doming of the thermocline (Smayda, 1966).
Ecology of Tropical Oceans by Alan R. Longhurst (Eds.)