By Anna Wierzbicka
During this ground-breaking e-book, Anna Wierzbicka brings mental, anthropological and lingusitic insights to endure on our figuring out of ways feelings are expressed and skilled in several cultures, languages, and social relatives. The expression of emotion within the face, physique and modes of speech are all explored and Wierzbicka exhibits how the physically expression of emotion varies throughout cultures and demanding situations conventional methods to the learn of facial expressions. This e-book should be beneficial to teachers and scholars of emotion around the social sciences.
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Additional resources for Emotions across Languages and Cultures: Diversity and Universals
For example, if we are interested in "emotions" and uninterested in words (as for example Ekman (1994a) professes to be), we still have to take enough interest in words to notice that English words such as sadness, enjoyment, or anger are no more than the cultural artifacts of one particular language. As Edward Sapir warned, ‘‘the philosopher needs to understand language if only to protect himself against his own language habits’’ (Sapir 1949: 165). "Emotion" is "expressed" or communicated at every level of language, including grammar and intonation; it is also expressed in facial gestures such as frowns and raised eyebrows or in bodily gestures such as kisses or foot-stamping.
The point is all the more instructive in that the main thrust of Gaylin's book is anti-behaviourist, denouncing the widespread preoccupation with ‘‘the orderly charts, statistics, and physiological measurements that have come to represent the academic world of emotion’’ (p. 6 20 Emotions across languages and cultures The perspective on human feelings which sees them as ‘‘disruptive episodes’’ is also reflected in Paul Ekman's (1992a: 186) suggestion (based partly on the distinction between "emotions" and ‘‘moods’’) that ‘‘emotions are typically a matter of seconds, not minutes, hours or days’’.
As an illustration of these differences in approach, I reproduce below (in a slightly abbreviated form) the ‘‘prototype of sadness’’ proposed by Shaver et al. (1987: 1077). 40 Emotions across languages and cultures The prototype of sadness An undesirable outcome; getting what was not wanted . Discovering that one is powerless, helpless, impotent Empathy with someone who is sad, hurt, etc. Sitting or lying around; being inactive, lethargic, listless Tired, rundown, low in energy; slow shuffling movements; slumped, drooping posture Withdrawing from social contact; talking little or not at all Low, quiet, slow, monotonous voice; saying sad things Frowning, not smiling; crying, tears, whimpering Irritable, touchy, grouchy; moping, brooding, being moody Negative outlook; thinking only about the negative side of things Giving up; no longer trying to improve or control the situation Blaming, criticizing oneself Talking to someone about the sad feelings or events Taking action, becoming active ..
Emotions across Languages and Cultures: Diversity and Universals by Anna Wierzbicka