By W. Y. Fan, G. P. Wang, H. D. Liu, Z. J. Xie, Y. P. Chen
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Extra resources for Energy Research and Power Engineering 2014
For cryogenic insulation design, multiple insulation materials can be combined according to their temperature distribution profiles to save materials and reduce costs. Both ATCM and NTCM are too conservative in insulation design and NTCM is not suitable for verification. Furthermore, when equipment has restrict insulation property requirement and wide operation temperature range, the design of layer thickness and properties verification should consider the variation of thermal conductivities in insulation layers.
Semiconductor has many characteristics, and they are reflected with characteristic parameters, such as forbidden bandwidth, resistivity, non-equilibrium carrier lifetime and mobility. Forbidden bandwidth reflects an excited energy, which excites valence electron from bound state to free state. Conductivity of semiconductor material is represented by carrier mobility. Non-equilibrium carrier lifetime reflects relaxation characteristic of semiconductor materials, transition from nonequilibrium to equilibrium, under the action of external factors.
Direction x is the direction of the electric field, Ex is the electric field strength, whose direction is perpendicular to magnetic field direction, and along direction z, magnetic induction is Bz . A transverse electric field E y will be produced in direction y , perpendicular to the direction of electric field and magnetic field, which is called Hall Effect. e. Bz and E y = K H J x Bz Proportional coefficient KH current density J x are in proportional, （1） is called Hall coefficient. KH = Ey （2） J x Bz Application of Hall Effect of semiconductor materials[4-5] One of important methods to study semiconductor is through Hall Effect.
Energy Research and Power Engineering 2014 by W. Y. Fan, G. P. Wang, H. D. Liu, Z. J. Xie, Y. P. Chen