Read e-book online Enterprise Grammar 4 Student's Book PDF

By Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley

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110u Transconductance of the circuit in Fig. 3-2 100u 90u Transconductance (A/V) 80u 70u Transconductance of the circuit in Fig. 4 Figure 3-15. Gm versus control voltage of transconductors in Figs. 3-1 and 3-2. 3. 2 55 Comparators Comparators are very important building blocks in many analog and mixed signal systems, where they mainly serve as an interface between the analog and the digital domain. Thus, comparators are always in the heart of any kind of analog to digital converters design. As the name suggests, a comparator is a circuit block that compares two signals and provides a final digital output, so in essence, a comparator is simply a differential amplifier with a very high gain, where once one of its two input signals slightly exceeds the other, the output of the comparator saturates to one of the two supply rails.

The fourth limitation in the circuit in Fig. 3-1 is that it needs a third op-amp to generate the ICM signal. This is in addition to the extra circuitry needed to extract the common-mode voltage of the input signal, which increases the size and power consumption of the transconductor. In the next section, a modification 3. Tunable Elements 45 to the circuit shown in Fig. 3-1 will be presented. The introduced modification extends the control voltage range and also significantly improves the linearity of the circuit.

3-2 offers 420 mV. As those numbers show, there is a significant improvement in the differential input range, or in other words, the output currents are much more linear with respect to the differential input voltage. Another way to assess the linearity of the transconductor is the THD numbers shown in table 3-1. As expected, the best THD performance is achieved at low frequency, and low input voltage, while the worst performance is at high frequency and high input voltage. As those numbers show, the circuit in Fig.

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Enterprise Grammar 4 Student's Book by Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley

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