By Russell A. Barkley PhD ABPP ABCN
See additionally Barkley's empirically dependent, ecologically legitimate overview instruments: Barkley Deficits in govt Functioning Scale (BDEFS for Adults) and Barkley Deficits in govt Functioning Scale--Children and kids (BDEFS-CA).
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Additional resources for Executive Functions: What They Are, How They Work, and Why They Evolved
Fuster does not put a ghost in the machine or homunculus in the mind. All along, it is the individual organism that is selecting what goals it will pursue within the constraints of its time horizon or capacity for retrospective and prospective functions. While Fuster acknowledges that PFC-injured patients display an inordinate degree of concreteness in their daily behavior, he believes that this is largely, if not solely, a temporal concreteness. “The patient suffers from an overall constriction of the scope and complexity of behavior and of the thinking behind it” (p.
Consider how we are to connect the inability of PFC patients to sort cards into categories or reorganize rings onto spindles to match a sample arrangement and that individual’s profound difficulties with ethical or moral conduct. What do such tasks tell us about the likelihood of the person having substantial difficulties with social relationships with others, with reciprocity and cooperation, or with participating in the community and obeying its laws? The fundamental basis of morality is awareness of one’s self over time in relation to others and the future consequences of one’s actions toward others and of others’ toward one’s self.
Also troubling in this empirical (statistical) approach is that typically the correlations among these various factors are relatively and disturbingly low, suggesting only 10–20% of shared variance among them. This finding Problems with the Concept of EF 23 is not encouraging of a central construct or general EF factor (Lehto, 1996). , 2000), however, this limited relationship among the factors could just as easily reflect the diversity of non-EF abilities that are also being sampled in the EF test batteries.
Executive Functions: What They Are, How They Work, and Why They Evolved by Russell A. Barkley PhD ABPP ABCN