By Riccardo Lencioni, Dania Cioni, Carlo Bartolozzi, A.L. Baert
Few fields of drugs have witnessed such extraordinary growth because the prognosis and therapy of liver tumors. Advances in imaging expertise, the improvement of novel distinction brokers, and the advent of optimized scanning protocols have enormously facilitated the non-invasive detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. additionally, image-guided options for percutaneous tumor ablation became an accredited substitute therapy for sufferers with inoperable liver melanoma. This ebook presents a entire and up to date review of the position of diagnostic and interventional radiology in appreciate of liver tumors. the quantity strikes from historical past sections on technique and segmental liver anatomy to the most sections at the analysis of benign and malignant liver lesions. An built-in technique, occupied with the correlation of ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging findings, is gifted. ultimately, a whole part describes the rules, tools, and result of percutaneous tumor ablation techniques.
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Additional resources for Focal liver lesions: detection, characterization, ablation
Correct characterization decreased with thicker (>4 mm) slices due to partial-volume artefacts. The most signiﬁcant differences between different protocols were recorded for lesions smaller than 11 mm. 5 mm. 5 mm slice thickness is used (Kawata et al. 2002). 7 Radiation Issues Phantom studies have revealed a possible increase in radiation exposure when imaging protocols of MDCT scanners have been compared to those of single-slice CT scanners. 6 with multislice CT compared to single-slice CT. To take full advantage of the potentials of MDCT, imaging protocols must be adapted and optimized but the radiation dose must also be taken into consideration (Fenchel et al.
Laghi, MD; I. Sansoni, MD; M. Celestre, MD; P. Paolantonio, MD; R. Passariello, MD Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Policlinico Umberto I, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome, Italy angiography; CT colonography for evaluation of colonic disorders). A second revolution occurred when multi-slice (multidetector-row) CT (MDCT) was introduced (Klingenbeck-Regn et al. 1999). Although the ﬁrst MDCT was a ”dual-slice” scanner, presented already in 1992 and consisting of two parallel detector rows that allowed the simultaneous acquisition of two interwoven helices, the real impact of multi-slice technology was observed at the end of 1998, when the ﬁrst four-slice CT equipment was introduced in a clinical setting (Berland and Smith 1998; Liang and Kruger 1996).
6) (Ichikawa et al. 1998a; Kim et al. 1999). Taouli et al. 5×10–3 mm2/s, with a diffusion factor (“b”) of 0 and 500 s/mm2, would result in sensitivity, speciﬁcity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of 84%, 89%, 87% and 86% respectively. Moreover, with singleshot echo-planar technique, it is possible to perform a perfusion study of the liver by obtaining images at 1–2 s intervals after a bolus injection of paramagnetic contrast agent. On perfusion-weighted images (which are T2*-weighted images) gadolinium chelates serve as negative contrast agents decreasing the signal in the enhancing lesions (Padhani and Husband 2001).
Focal liver lesions: detection, characterization, ablation by Riccardo Lencioni, Dania Cioni, Carlo Bartolozzi, A.L. Baert