By Wehr, Steath
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Extra info for Freshwater Algae of North America Ecology and Classification
Further details are given in Munawar and Munawar (1996). Population dynamics generally follow predictable changes in temperature, sunlight, nutrients, and other factors. However, algal population dynamics exhibit more abrupt changes than these gradual trends predict, suggesting that other factors may drive seasonal succession. Round (1971) described these as “shock” peri- ods: times in the lake cycle, such as turnover, that lead to sharp changes in chemical or physical conditions. Lakes with less predictable conditions or more shock periods exhibit frequent changes in species composition and shorter growth peaks (Fig.
Grazing by benthic invertebrates is also important to epilithic algae. Snails (Planorbis contortus) and limpets (Ancylus fluviatilis) that inhabit the stony littoral zone of a small calcareous lake consumed substantial quantities of algae and detritus, and each preferentially grazed certain algal species (Calow, 1973a, b). Selectivity and more intense grazing activity by limpets exerted greater effects on algal community structure than did snails. Light availability and grazing pressure are factors that logically would be expected to be more important than nutrients for epilithic algae in eutrophic lakes, but grazing had minor impacts on biomass and seasonal patterns of epilithic algae in Crosmere, a eutrophic lake in the English Midlands, although caddisfly larvae may have contributed to spatial patchiness of Cladophora (Harrison and Hildrew, 1998).
Bottom materials are eroded from river margins and deposited downstream in point bars. Differences in current velocity and substratum also create regular, alternating patterns of riffles and pools (Fig. 11C and D). Riffles are shallow sections with larger substrata and greater current velocity, and are spaced at fairly regular intervals, about five to seven stream-widths apart (Hynes, 1970).
Freshwater Algae of North America Ecology and Classification by Wehr, Steath