By National Research Council Natl Research Council
Addresses the failure of the implementation of the applied sciences designed to achieve groundwater remediation as a result of genuine or preceived hazards of strength failure in a advertisement context.
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Extra info for Groundwater & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants
Html 16 GROUNDWATER AND SOIL CLEANUP water and soil cleanup at DOE sites and are reviewed briefly in Chapter 5 of this report. However, technical problems also have limited DOE’s progress and are the principal focus of this report. Technologies for remedying many of the types of soil and groundwater contamination problems found at DOE facilities are in the early stages of development. This report focuses on three key categories of contaminants commonly found in soil and groundwater at DOE installations: (1) metals, (2) radionuclides, and (3) dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), which are oily liquids that are denser than water.
Like other industries, DOE frequently disposed of wastes in landfills, lagoons, or underground injection wells, and spills of these by-products were not uncommon. These practices ultimately led to widespread groundwater and soil contamination across the weapons complex. At DOE facilities, the contamination problem was exacerbated by the veil of secrecy and the resultant lack of environmental oversight associated with the nuclear weapons production program (CERE, 1995; DOE, 1997). In part because of policies designed to preserve the secrecy of the nuclear weapons production process, DOE and its predecessor agencies were exempt from environmental laws for most of the nearly five decades between World War II and the end of the Cold War.
Html 29 INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-4 Chemicals Present as DNAPLs in Contaminated Groundwater and Soil at DOE Installations Source of Information Rank INEEL, 1997a Groundwater 1 Trichloroethylene (TCE) 2 Dichloroethylene (DCE) 3 Perchloroethylene (PCE) 4 Vinyl chloride 5 Trichloroethane (TCA) 6 Chloroform 7 Dichloroethane 8 Carbon tetrachloride DOE, 1992b 1,1,1-TCA 1,2-DCE PCE 1,1-DCA Chloroform 1,1-DCE Carbon tetrachloride 1,2-Dichloromethane Soil 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TCE Polychlorinated biphenyls DCE PCE TCE 1,1,1-TCA PCE Dichloromethane Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Freon 1,2-DCA 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Chlorobenzene a This data set is not inclusive across the weapons complex but includes the major waste units identified at about 60 sites in 1995 and 1996.
Groundwater & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants by National Research Council Natl Research Council