Download e-book for iPad: Hazard Assessment of Chemicals. Current Developments by Jitendra Saxena (Eds.)

By Jitendra Saxena (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 0123124034

ISBN-13: 9780123124036

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Sample text

Thus, sequential ex­ tractions are more appropriate to the speciation of metals in this type of sample than is XRD. VI. NATURAL WATERS A. Introduction The recent interest in examining the physicochemical speciation of trace met­ als in natural waters arises in part from the increasing awareness that only a fraction of the total metal present may invoke biochemical and geochemical responses (111, 158, 177, 191, 192, 244), and from the development of suffi­ ciently sensitive analytical techniques.

Experiments investigating adsorptive losses of trace metals generally involve the filtration of either a synthetic solution or a previously filtered natural water. In the first case, inorganic constituents can be properly modeled and it has been demonstrated that Group I and II metal cations effectively reduce the adsorption of heavy metals (120, 198, 224). However, the role of organic material and organometallic complexes in adsorption processes has not been fully evaluated. Cranston and Buckley (69) have shown that Nuclepore filters strongly adsorb humic acids.

Alternatively, a double filtration method has been used to recover lead adsorbed onto glass equipment (279). Adsorption onto the filter itself is determined by the composition which in turn defines the applicability of the filter to a particular task. Although cellulose acetate filters adsorb inorganic mercury from seawater, glass fiber filters suffer only slight filtration losses (< 7%) and can be initially decontaminated by ignition at 500°C (214). Alternatively, only Nuclepore polycarbonate filters are acceptable for other heavy metal analyses as they adsorb negligible amounts of such metals (779, 725, 258).

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Hazard Assessment of Chemicals. Current Developments by Jitendra Saxena (Eds.)

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