By D. C. Cullum (auth.), Mr D. C. Cullum (eds.)
The research of surfactants provides many difficulties to the analyst. This ebook has been written via an skilled group of surfactant analysts, to provide functional assist in this tough box. Readers will locate the available textual content and transparent description of tools, besides wide references, a useful relief of their work.
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Extra resources for Introduction to Surfactant Analysis
Examples: acyl diethanolamides, RCON(C 2 H 4 0H)z; ethoxylated fatty alcohols, R(OC2 H 4 )nOH. Cationic surfactant: a surfactant in which the hydrophilic part carries a positive charge. Examples: alkyltrimethylammonium salts, RN+(CH 3 h; alkyldimethylbenzylammonium salts, RN+(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 C 6 H 5 . 3. Amphoteric surfactant: a surfactant in which the hydrophilic part contains both positive and negative charges. Examples: alkylaminopropionates, RNH:;t(CH 2 )zCOO-; alkylbetaines, RN+(CH 3 )zCH2 COo-.
As a result, the various interfacial tensions are reduced. The reason for this behaviour is that the surfactant molecule contains two structurally distinct parts, one of which is hydrophilic while the other is hydrophobic. Oil-soluble surfactants have an oleophilic and an oleophobic part. In the great majority of surfactants, the hydrophobic part is a hydrocarbon chain, which usually has an average length of 12 to 18 carbon atoms and may include an aromatic ring. e. in the water phase. Further molecules seek the surface or the walls of the vessel until both are full, at which point further additions result in the formation of micelles, which are clusters of molecules arranged with the hydrophobic parts towards the centre and the hydrophilic parts on the outside.
Cover with a watch glass and stand on a steam bath until the precipitate has settled and the solution is clear. 7. Filter on a dry tared silica sintered crucible, wash the precipitate with water then with a few millilitres of ethanol, and dry under a vacuum. Dry in an oven at 105°C for 30 min. 8. Heat in a furnace at 600°C for 15 min, cool and weigh. 4 100 W' x - - x - weight of precipitate, and W = w weight of sample. 34 INTRODUCTION TO SURFACTANT ANALYSIS Nitrogen and sulphur are more conveniently determined by means of an automatic elemental analyser, which burns the sample in a stream of oxygen and analyses the combustion products by gas chromatography.
Introduction to Surfactant Analysis by D. C. Cullum (auth.), Mr D. C. Cullum (eds.)