By Roger Brownsword, W.R. Cornish, Margaret Llewelyn
This factor addresses conceptual, moral, political and useful matters confronting the legislations within the face of the genetic revolution.
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Additional resources for Law and human genetics: regulating a revolution
The technology may enable the alleviation of many disease conditions and even the cure of human disease including cancer, and AIDS. It was originally envisaged that gene therapy would be used to treat monogenic disorders, but this has not proved to be the case. 35 For the first 2,300 patients where treatment has been attempted, only 10 per cent have been for a range of monogenic diseases, 60 per cent have been for cancer, and about 18 per cent for infectious diseases (primarily AIDS). 37 The vast majority of patients have been in the USA (75 per cent, 1,708 of 2,293); 367 patients have been treated in the European Union and Switzerland, of whom 95 patients have been treated in the UK.
As Table 3 shows, retroviruses are best understood, and have therefore been used in most protocols, although they have the disadvantage of only infecting dividing cells. The virus is incorporated into the host genome in a random position. Adenoviruses have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, are said not to integrate within the genome, but are highly immunogenic. Table 3* Vector Protocols Patients 3 34 2 4 56 1 9 16 139 1 22 1 5 301 21 265 8 30 433 3 54 121 1100 6 155 0 94 2293 Adeno-associated virus Adenovirus Electroporation Gene gun Liposome Liposome/Adenovirus Naked DNA Poxvirus Retrovirus Retrovirus/gene gun Retrovirus vector producing cells RNA transfer Transfection Totals The tools are available to allow a very considerable expansion in the use of genes in providing new ways of treating disease but the problems highlighted in terms of the application of the technology must first be overcome.
The register is not complete in that it only contains those notifications for which express consent has to be given by the HSE. that is First uses of Group II organisms, and Type B operations with Group II organisms. Reg 15. Reg 17. 90(g). Reg 8. 91. See further below. Reg 15(2). EPA s l23(3Xa). The criterion used for deliberate release is thus slightly different than that which applies under the Contained Use Regulations, which applies to information which would adversely affect the applicant's competitive position.
Law and human genetics: regulating a revolution by Roger Brownsword, W.R. Cornish, Margaret Llewelyn