By G. Schneider, M.R. Prince, J.F.M. Meaney, V.B. Ho, E.J. Potchen
The introduction of contrast-enhanced MRA within the early to mid Nineties revolutionized the medical method of vascular imaging: a correct non-invasive imaging modality, no longer requiring ionizing radiation or probably nephrotoxic iodinated distinction media, was once capable of compete with the extra unsafe and invasive catheter angiography.
this present day, MRA is a secure, easy-to-perform strategy repeatedly utilized in so much imaging facilities and the ongoing improvement of quicker, extra strong magnets and more suitable distinction brokers is more and more assisting to beat a few of the early obstacles of the technique.
Subdivided into 3 sections (technique, symptoms and functional purposes) and written by means of across the world well known specialists within the box, this quantity sticks out within the present literature on MRA via providing:
· specific details on series parameters for various magnets and vascular territories for the optimization of the MRA technique;
· a vast evaluation of the vital symptoms for which contrast-enhanced MR angiography is preferably suited;
· the common MR imaging findings linked to numerous pathologies;
· the appropriateness of contrast-enhanced MRA in comparison with different modalities, reminiscent of CTA and CEUS;
· the capability pitfalls and obstacles of the method in medical routine.
The quantity will turn out useful to radiologists and clinicians wishing to extend, enhance or consolidate their regimen method of vascular MR imaging.
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Extra info for Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Techniques, Indications and Practical Applications
The addition of the second delayed phase acquisition will ensure proper visualization of vessels with slow flow or depiction of a late filling false channel in the case of an aortic dissection. Additionally, the second acquisition can often distinguish artifacts from true vascular findings (Fig. 4). Finally, the inclusion of the second post-contrast 3D MRA acquisition may provide additional venous depiction which may be of clinical importance in certain specific clinical situations.
E. at least 22 gauge) to support a bolus rate of at least 2 mL/sec. When imaging the aortic arch and great vessel origins, it is preferable to place the intravenous catheter in the right arm, as left sided venous contrast administration can cause T2* artifacts due to the high concentration of Gd within the left bracheocephalic vein en route to the right heart. This can often be mistaken for a proximal great vessel stenosis (Fig. 4) . For multi-station bolus chase exams, care must be taken to ensure that the intravenous catheter is stabilized and that the tubing is sufficiently long to allow free movement of the patient and table during the bolus chase table translation.
Vascular Image Contrast on CE MRA. On CE MRA, the repetitive application of radiofrequency pulses generates the necessary image contrast to distinguish Gd-enhanced blood from unenhanced structures. g. muscle) 26 Magnetic Resonance Angiography efficiency. g. g. pregnancy), patients scheduled for a CE MRA examination should also be asked about underlying pulmonary disease and their ability to hold their breath. Intra-abdominal and thoracic CE MRA image quality is markedly improved when performed during a breath hold.
Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Techniques, Indications and Practical Applications by G. Schneider, M.R. Prince, J.F.M. Meaney, V.B. Ho, E.J. Potchen