By Tim Mair, Tom Divers and Norm Ducharme (Eds.)
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The laparoscope is inserted into the abdomen via a previously placed sheath and removable trocar. 5-15 em) to extend through the paralumbar fossa and be sturdy as to protect the laparoscope against the necessary torque and stresses encountered from manipulating the scope through this often heavily muscled portal. Insufflator Insufflators are used to create and maintain pneumoperitoneum, which is necessary for clear viewing and maneuvering the instruments and laparoscope in the abdomen. Commercial insufflators permit careful regulation of gas flow and intra-abdominal pressure.
The cranial region is divided into four spaces. From the right side the right lateral and right medial spaces can be accessed. The right lateral is viewed between the cecum and the body wall. The right medial is viewed between the root of the mesentery and the cecum. The left cranial region is divided into left lateral and left medial spaces. The left lateral space is between the spleen and body wall. The left medial space is between the mesocolon of the descending colon and the spleen. Laparoscopic examination from the right flank is performed in a clockwise direction around the abdomen.
11) in around 66 per cent of normal horses and in the cranial abdomen in 25 per cent of horses. The small intestine can also readily be assessed in the mid-abdomen via rectal examination (Figure 2. I 2). 5). Large intestine is visible in all quadrants of the abdomen. It is recognized ultrasonographically by its location, size, and the sacculated appearance of its contour. 14). 12 A transverse abdominal ultrasonogram obtained per rectum showing normal small intestine. 13 A transverse ultrasonogram of the cranioventral abdomen.
Manual of Equine Gastroenterology by Tim Mair, Tom Divers and Norm Ducharme (Eds.)