New PDF release: MRI of the Shoulder

By Michael B. Zlatkin MD FRCP(C)

ISBN-10: 0781715903

ISBN-13: 9780781715904

Now in its moment variation, this resident-friendly reference explains the fundamentals of MRI...then walks readers simply throughout the radiologic review of shoulder problems, relatively rotator cuff disorder and shoulder instability. Written in an inviting, easy-to-follow sort and illustrated with greater than six hundred scans, this long-awaited new version can be a favourite useful reference for citizens, practising radiologists, and orthopaedic surgeons.The booklet gains contributions from professional radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons. Chapters evaluation MRI concepts and shoulder anatomy, describe and illustrate MRI findings for a large choice of stipulations, and clarify how abnormalities visible on MR photos relate to pathophysiology and scientific indicators.

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Sample text

A loop coil can be considered to be a single-turn solenoid coil. Hoult (4) determined that simple loops of wire wound in a plane can produce a transverse field, although highly nonlinear as a function of distance away from the surface of the coil. As the signal falls off from the surface of the coil, so does the obtainable SNR. The useful field of view of the coil is defined by its diameter. Smaller loop coils have higher signal-to-noise performance, albeit less depth of penetration into the tissue of interest.

Typical imaging parameters for T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences include TR of 3,000 to 4,000 ms, effective TE of 70 to 80 ms, two to four signal averages, 256 × 256 or 512 × 224 matrix, and an echo train length of 12 to 16. T1- and proton density-weighted images are often acquired using a short echo train length of five or less. 32 Gradient Echo Gradient echo sequences offer much shorter imaging times due to their use of short TR and gradient refocusing, while maintaining adequate signal-to-noise ratio due to their use of relatively small flip angles.

That is, when it is in a curvature of a given diameter. If the shape of the coil deviates from the optimal shape, performance can degrade sharply. When using a flexible quadrature coil, proper positioning and fixation of the coil is critical. These coils are widely available today. Some have a positioning aid, similar to the laboratory ring stand. PHASED ARRAY COILS FOR SHOULDER IMAGING At this point in the evolution of RF coil design, it was clear that any increases in both SNR and field of view would require a new technology to be developed.

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MRI of the Shoulder by Michael B. Zlatkin MD FRCP(C)

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