By Nikhil Bhuskute, Edward Hoey, Amit Lakkaraju, Kshitij Mankad
MRI of the entire physique units out to coach trainee and skilled radiologists, radiographers and clinicians concerning key sequences for optimum imaging of universal pathologies, with basic reasons at the selection of a selected MR series. The authors current standard and consultant examples with proper medical and imaging beneficial properties to aid a greater realizing of those regularly encountered stipulations. each unit starts with a brief anatomy evaluate, and every case is defined in a standardised layout with a medical historical past, key sequences, imaging good points, and useful tricks as to shut differentials and how you can distinguish among them. A textual content of this nature is vital for all MR practitioners no matter what their heritage: clinical, technical or medical.
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Extra info for MRI of the Whole Body: An Illustrated Guide for Common Pathologies
The collateral ligaments provide lateral stability and the patella and associated tendons provide smoothness of motion during flexion and extension. 1 lists the structures of the knee and their optimal viewing planes. 1 continued (e) T2*-weighted gradient echo (GRE) sagittal. 2 Anatomy of the knee: coronal, sagittal and axial sections. (a) Coronal: A, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); B, lateral meniscus; C, medial meniscus; D, medial collateral ligament (MCL). (b) Coronal: A, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); B, popliteus tendon; C, biceps femoris tendon; D, lateral collateral ligament (LCL).
The deep portion is more often affected. There is high T2 signal in the region of the MCL. Grade 2 MCL tears are associated with ACL and medial meniscus pathology as previously noted. Grade 3 tears show complete discontinuity of the fibres, with haemorrhage and oedema in the adjacent soft tissues. Differentiating between grade 2 and grade 3 tears can be difficult. Chronicity of the injury is indicated by a thickened MCL with a relative lack of oedema. LCL injuries appear different from MCL tears, since the LCL is extracapsular.
A pathological cause (metastasis or myeloma) should be ruled out by assessing the marrow signal of the pelvis and the proximal femur. Hints and tips Bone marrow oedema identifies the site of the fracture and is the initial sign to look for. Assessment of the pelvis for stress fractures of the sacrum and other causes of hip pain such as pubic rami fractures should be looked for. High signal within the soft tissues of the hip should be looked for to exclude muscle injury or ligamentous injury. Specifically, avulsions of the muscle origins of the adductors, sartorius and the straight head of the rectus femoris or trochanteric bursitis may produce hip pain.
MRI of the Whole Body: An Illustrated Guide for Common Pathologies by Nikhil Bhuskute, Edward Hoey, Amit Lakkaraju, Kshitij Mankad