By R. Stephen Humphreys
During this obtainable examine, Stephen Humphreys introduces the main elusive of the early caliphs, Mu'awiya ibn abi Sufyan (602-680). all through heritage, a few have accused him of being the 1st caliph to diverge from Muhammed's version of excellent Muslim management when others credits him with uniting an empire in disarray and remodeling the Caliphate right into a workable kind of govt. In mild of this, Humphreys severely analyses his resources, and seeks to get as shut as attainable to a old account of the good guy.
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Extra info for Mu'awiya ibn abi Sufyan: From Arabia to Empire (Makers of the Muslim World)
Because everything depended on the governor's skill and loyalty. However, 'Uthman's confidence was well placed. He knew that Mu'awiya was a proven soldier and administrator, who had earned the respect and support of the Arab tribesmen under his command. He was not only a close kinsman but someone who had unfailingly followed his superiors' directives since the beginning of the conquests in 634. With Syria in Mu 'awiya's reliable hands, 'Uthman could focus his attention on the tense provinces of Basra, Kufa and EgyPt.
Their inhabitants had been driven out when they were first conquered in 636 and no garrisons stationed in them, perhaps because of the severe personnel shortages of the Muslim armies then operating in Syria. Mu 'awiya was determined not to lose control of the coast. He quickly retook the ports, rebuilt their fortifications and garrisoned them. Not long after, Mu'awiya besieged Tripoli, the lastmajorSyrio-Lebanese port still in Byzantine hands. With no relief in sight, the inhabitants decided to abandon the city and were evacuated in ships sent by the Emperor.
The mo~t important result of Mu'awiya's long tenure and unified government emerged only after 'Uthman's death. When Mu'awiya challenged 'Ali for the caliphate during the first Civil war (656-661}, he could rely upon the loyalty and military experience of the Arab troops stationed in Syria. Indeed, he won the civil war and retained unchallenged power thereafter because he was the only Muslim leader who had solid control of the fiscal and personnel resources of his province. To begin with, 'Ali had no army and had to patch one together from the disparate tribes of Iraq (mostly fron:; Kufa), each of which had its own agenda.
Mu'awiya ibn abi Sufyan: From Arabia to Empire (Makers of the Muslim World) by R. Stephen Humphreys