By Piero Baglioni, David Chelazzi, Gabriella Caminati, Rodorigo Giorgi, Luigi Dei, Debora Berti, Emiliano Carretti, Pierandrea Lo Nostro, Emiliano Fratini, Massimo Bonini
Content material: Cultural history Artefacts and Conservation: Surfaces and Interfaces; The Degradation of artworks fabrics; Conservation remedies: cleansing, Consolidation and security; cleansing I: Solvents and suggestions; cleansing I: program; cleansing II: Surfactants and Micellar options; cleansing II: purposes and Case experiences; cleansing III: Emulsions and Microemulsions; cleansing III: functions and Case reports; cleansing IV: Gels and Polymeric Dispersions
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Extra info for Nanoscience for the conservation of works of art
Furthermore, changing the thickness of the walls has no eﬀect on the surface, thus suggesting that the forces giving rise to the phenomenon can be signiﬁcant only at extremely small distances (a more precise analysis indicates a large portion of these forces to be at most molecular in range). Molecules being pulled toward the walls will force other molecules aside in all directions, resulting in a spread along the walls that is only partly compensated by gravity. Liquid is forced upward along the walls, and cohesive forces carry the remaining liquid column with it.
1039/9781849737630-00001 30 Chapter 1 Blocks of multiple bronze replicas were prepared by fusion of the same alloys used in the original artefact18 by Ghiberti and Pisano, and the sets of replicas were placed on the Gates of Pisano and Ghiberti that face either north towards the entrance of the Baptistery or to the south towards the pedestrian area. 24. Continuous atmospheric monitoring was performed over a three-year period: single replicas from each set were collected every six months and characterized with a multitude of physico-chemical measurements, among which was contact angle determination.
16). If we deposit a drop of water on a solid surface, the drop will probably start to spread. When spreading stops, each point of the perimeter of the drop will be at equilibrium. The equilibrium contact angle depends on the nature of the liquid and of the solid. 18 shows how the contact angle of water on surfaces of diﬀerent chemical nature changes, mirroring the wetting properties of the solid: water spreads on glass but does not wet wax surfaces. The contact angle is a concept related to the adhesion and cohesion phenomena discussed in the previous section: liquid molecules are subject to cohesion forces that keep them close together but at the same time adhesion forces operate between the liquid molecules in contact with the surface and the molecules of the solid material.
Nanoscience for the conservation of works of art by Piero Baglioni, David Chelazzi, Gabriella Caminati, Rodorigo Giorgi, Luigi Dei, Debora Berti, Emiliano Carretti, Pierandrea Lo Nostro, Emiliano Fratini, Massimo Bonini