By Patrick J. Walsh, Sharon Smith, Lora Fleming, Helena Solo-Gabriele, William H. Gerwick
This e-book highlights an remarkable collaboration of environmental scientists, ecologists and physicians operating jointly in this vital new self-discipline, to the good thing about human health and wellbeing and ocean environmental integrity alike. Oceanography, toxicology, usual items chemistry, environmental microbiology, comparative animal body structure, epidemiology and public health and wellbeing are all lengthy confirmed components of analysis of their personal correct and all give a contribution information and services to an built-in knowing of the ways that ocean biology and chemistry have an effect on human future health for higher or worse. This booklet introduces this subject to researchers and complicated scholars attracted to this rising box, permitting them to determine how their learn suits into the wider interactions among the aquatic surroundings and human well-being. *Color illustrations of aquatic existence and oceanic phenomena resembling hurricanes and algal blooms*Numerous case studies*Socio-economic and moral Analyses position the technology in a broader context*Study questions for every bankruptcy to aid scholars and teachers * hazards and treatments sections to assist outline direction modules for guideline
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Extra info for Oceans and Human Health: Risks and Remedies from the Seas
The transoceanic currents to the north of the equator are the North Pacific Current and the North Equatorial Current, and the corresponding boundary currents are the California and Kuroshio currents. The analo- 8 Oceans and Human Health gous current systems in the South Pacific are the West Wind Drift, the South Equatorial Current, the Peru Current, and the East Australia Current, respectively. The South Equatorial Current actually extends to about 4°N, and much of the flow in the West Wind Drift is actually circumpolar, as there are no continental landmasses to impede it between roughly 55° and 65°S.
It is not uncommonly 6 or 7 years, but some events have been separated by as little as 1 year. The most recent El Niños occurred in 1957–1958 (strong), 1965 (moderate), 1969 (weak), 1972–1973 (strong), 1976 (moderate), 1982– 1983 (very strong), 1986–1987 (strong), 1991–1992 (very strong), 1993 (weak), 1994 (weak), 1997–1998 (very strong), and 2002–2003 (weak). El Niño conditions are triggered by a movement of warm water from the western Pacific to the eastern Pacific via the Equatorial Countercurrent and Undercurrent.
In the North Atlantic, on the other hand, the salinity gradient is small, and cooling during the winter is sufficient to cause surface waters to sink to depths of several kilometers. This comparison underscores the importance of freshwater inputs in determining whether bottom water is formed. In the Southern Ocean bottom waters are formed because freshwater is effectively removed by the formation of sea ice during the winter. In the North Atlantic, deep waters are formed in the winter because freshwater and heat are removed by evaporation.
Oceans and Human Health: Risks and Remedies from the Seas by Patrick J. Walsh, Sharon Smith, Lora Fleming, Helena Solo-Gabriele, William H. Gerwick