By Hui Huang, Jinsong Huang
This publication offers a complete overview of natural and hybrid sun cells and identifies their primary rules and various purposes. nice consciousness is given to the cost delivery mechanism, donor and acceptor fabrics, interfacial fabrics, replacement electrodes, equipment engineering and physics, and machine balance. The authors offer an business point of view at the way forward for photovoltaic technologies.
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Additional resources for Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells
Rau, U. & Nelson, J. Recombination via tail states in polythiophene: fullerene solar cells. 115209 (2011). 43. -J. A. , Van der Kaap, N. , Koster, L. J. A. & Blom, P. W. M. Quantifying Bimolecular Recombination in Organic Solar Cells in Steady State. 201300251 (2013). 44. Arumugam, S. et al. Charge transport in a two-dimensional molecular organic semiconductor. 1039/c3tc31670j (2014). 45. Morfa, A. , Nardes, A. , Shaheen, S. , Kopidakis, N. & van de Lagemaat, J. Timeof-Flight Studies of Electron-Collection Kinetics in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.
Rsh, on the other hand, can be influenced by surface morphology between active layers and interfacial layers. Furthermore, the current leakage from pinholes in the film should be avoided to obtain high Rsh. For high-quality monocrystalline inorganic solar cells, FFs greater than 80 % are routine. However, for typical high-performance OPV, FF is often found to be in the range of 65–75 %, mainly caused by a number of recombination mechanisms. Marks and coworkers recently reported OPV with unprecedently high FF of close to 80 % .
34 N. Zhou and A. Facchetti The charge carrier mobility is calculated using the equation: µ = d 2 / ttrU , where d is the film thickness, ttr is the transit time, and U is the external voltage. In the study of nongeminate recombination in OPV, the Langevin recombination coefβ L e( µ p + µe ) / εε 0 ficient, β L , is proportional to the charge carrier mobility, via = [46, 47], while the TOF is only generating a single value for β that is valid for a particular set of conditions (charge density and extraction time).
Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells by Hui Huang, Jinsong Huang