David R. Klein's Organic Chemistry II as a Second Language: Second Semester PDF

By David R. Klein

ISBN-10: 0471738085

ISBN-13: 9780471738084

Construction at the resounding good fortune of the 1st quantity (0-471-27235-3), natural Chemistry as a moment Language, quantity 2 presents readers with transparent, easy-to-understand factors of primary ideas. It explores the serious strategies whereas additionally analyzing why they're correct. The center content material is gifted in the framework of predicting items, featuring mechanisms, and fixing synthesis difficulties. Readers will fine-tune the most important talents considering fixing these forms of issues of the aid of interactive, step by step directions and difficulties.

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Additional resources for Organic Chemistry II as a Second Language: Second Semester Topics (2nd Edition)

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O O conc. 43. Hint: The group on the ring is an activator. 44. AlBr3 Hint: The group on the ring is a deactivator. 45. Cl2 AlCl3 Hint: The group on the ring is an activator. So far, we have focused on the directing effects when you have only one group on a ring. 6 PREDICTING DIRECTING EFFECTS Activator 55 Deactivator and we saw only one exception to these general rules (the halogens). But how do you predict the directing effects when you have more than one group on a ring? For example, consider the following compound: NO2 What if we used this compound in an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction.

But this reaction is not an alkylation. Rather, it is called an acylation. To see the difference, let’s quickly compare an alkyl group with an acyl group. Alkyl group O Acyl group We can put an acyl group onto a benzene ring in exactly the same way that we put an alkyl group on the ring. We just need to use the following reagents: O Cl AlCl3 The first reagent is called an acyl chloride (or acid chloride), and we are already familiar with the role of AlCl3 (the Lewis acid). The Lewis acid is used to pull a Cl atom off of the acyl chloride, like this: O Cl Cl Cl Al O Cl Cl Cl Al Cl Cl O Cl Cl Al Cl Cl The end result is that we have a new kind of electrophile that we can use to react with benzene.

38. Predict the products of the following reaction: HNO3 H2SO4 Answer: We begin by looking at the reagents, so that we can determine what kind of reaction is taking place. The reagents are nitric acid and sulfuric acid. We have seen that these reagents give us NO2ϩ as an electrophile, which can react with an aromatic ring in an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The end result is to place a nitro group into the ring. So, now the question is: where do we put the nitro group? To answer this question, we must predict the directing effects of the group already on the ring (before the reaction takes place).

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Organic Chemistry II as a Second Language: Second Semester Topics (2nd Edition) by David R. Klein

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