By Hans Thacher (editor-in-chief) Clarke
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Extra resources for Organic Syntheses: Vol. III
That is, a single bond will become a double bond and a double bond will become a triple bond. ¬ Draw the resonance contributing structure indicated by the curved arrows. Be certain to show all valence electrons and all formal charges. 11 Use curved arrows to show the redistribution of valence electrons in converting resonance contributing structure (a) to (b) and then (b) to (c). Also show, using curved arrows, how (a) can be converted to (c) without going through (b). 6 CH3 ¬ C (b) √ O – ’ O (c) What Is the Orbital Overlap Model of Covalent Bonding?
An atom may lose or gain enough electrons to acquire a filled valence shell. An atom that gains electrons becomes an anion, and an atom that loses electrons becomes a cation. A chemical bond between an anion and a cation is called an ionic bond. chlorine (atomic number 17) gains an electron to acquire a filled valence shell identical to that of argon (atomic number 18) Na + Cl + ¡ Na - Cl sodium (atomic number 11) loses an electron to acquire a filled valence shell identical to that of neon (atomic number 10) Covalent bond A chemical bond resulting from the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons.
This pattern remains in common use in the United Valence electrons Electrons in the valence (outermost) shell of an atom. Valence shell The outermost electron shell of an atom. Lewis structure of an atom The symbol of an element surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of electrons in the valence shell of the atom. T a b l e 1 . 3 Lewis Structures for Elements 1–18 of the Periodic Table 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A HD 8A HeC LiD BeC BB C DCB C DN bC CO bC NaD MgC Al BC DSi BC DPb C CSb C D CF C A D CCl C A helium and neon have filled valence shells CNe a C CAr aC neon and argon have in common an electron configuration in which the s and p orbitals of their valence shells are filled with eight electrons States today.
Organic Syntheses: Vol. III by Hans Thacher (editor-in-chief) Clarke