By H.R. Hogasen
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Additional resources for Physiological Changes Associated with the Diadromous Migration of Salmonids (Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences)
In addition, both increased plasma chloride concentration and acidosis decrease the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen (Jensen et al. 1993). Transfer to seawater of freshwater adapted rainbow trout was immediately followed by a transient decrease in arterial PCO2 (Bath and Eddy 1979b; Maxime et al. 1991). To compensate for this decrease, ventilatory flow increased 55% by 1 h (Maxime et al. 1991). PO2 in arterial blood returned to freshwater levels by 6 h. However, the arterial oxygen content gradually decreased by 38% after 24 h, due to a marked decrease in the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen.
The magnitude of the change in plasma pH is therefore probably linked to the osmoregulatory ability of the fish at the time of the transfer and to the degree of salinity. 12 pH units compared to freshwater values (Larsen and Jensen 1993). The acidification of plasma may sometimes be enhanced by an increase in plasma lactate (Seddiki et al. 1995) or in PCO2 (Larsen and Jensen 1993), which 34 Physiological Changes Associated with the Diadromous Migration of Salmonids are thought to result from reduced ventilatory capacity of the gills following seawater transfer (Stagg et al.
This two-step migration could be related to the change in olfactory response described in Hasler and Scholz (1983). The fish would first move towards the scent imprinted during smoltification then later towards conspecifics and appropriate spawning grounds. Sockeye, pink, and chum salmon, however, emigrate from their spawning stream almost immediately upon emergence from the gravel and may cover long distances to their nursery area. A precise homing to spawning areas could therefore depend on an early imprinting of the embryo or the alevin in the gravels (Brannon 1982), at least in some stocks.
Physiological Changes Associated with the Diadromous Migration of Salmonids (Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences) by H.R. Hogasen