By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Committee to Review DOE's Vision 21 R&D Program -- Phase 1
The imaginative and prescient 21 software is a comparatively new examine and improvement (R&D) software. it really is funded throughout the U.S. division of Energy's (DOE's) workplace of Fossil strength and its nationwide power know-how Laboratory (NETL). The imaginative and prescient 21 software Plan anticipates that imaginative and prescient 21 amenities may be in a position to convert fossil fuels (e.g., coal, average fuel, and petroleum coke) into electrical energy, strategy warmth, fuels, and/or chemical compounds affordably, with very excessive potency and extremely low emissions, together with of the greenhouse gasoline carbon dioxide (CO2). The targets of imaginative and prescient 21 are super not easy and impressive. As famous within the imaginative and prescient 21 know-how Roadmap, if this system meets its targets, imaginative and prescient 21 crops might basically do away with the various environmental issues often linked to the conversion of fossil fuels into electrical energy and transportation fuels or chemical compounds (NETL, 2001). Given the significance of fossil fuels, and particularly coal, to the economies of the USA and different international locations and the necessity to make the most of fossil fuels in a good and environmentally applicable demeanour, the advance of the applied sciences within the imaginative and prescient 21 application is a excessive priority.
This file comprises the result of the second one nationwide study Council (NRC) evaluate of the imaginative and prescient 21 R&D Program.
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Extra info for Review of DOE's Vision 21 Research and Development Program - Phase 1
Specifically, an assessment should be made of any fundamental advantages of hydrates over other “adsorbents,” which may form complexes with CO2 binding kinetics and thermodynamics similar to those of CO2 hydrate complexes. Finding. The impact of the O2 (and H2) purity on the economics of the gasificationbased processes being developed as part of Vision 21 does not appear to have been considered through any detailed engineering analysis. Thus, the potential consequences of the inelastic purity-cost trade-offs of membrane systems and more flexible processes remain unexplored.
It is also unclear whether the economic assessment evaluated recent advances in the hydrogen membrane technology area outside the narrowly focused programs currently funded by DOE. Issues of Concern and Remaining Barriers It appears that the Vision 21 Program in O2 separation will reach commercial viability within the next 6-7 years but will lead to relatively modest cost reductions compared with those required to achieve the cost target for systems generating power via gasification-based routes.
In the H2-membrane approach, some increases in flux have been attained by the use of thin films and composites, but their cost and practical implementation remain unclear, especially at the high temperatures of the envisioned applications. CO2 removal via the hydrate formation project appears to have remained at the conceptual stage, but even so the results so far suggest significant promise, the implications of which must be experimentally demonstrated. The polymeric membrane project has just been initiated and appears to have no tangible accomplishments, well-defined milestones, or clearly articulated strategy.
Review of DOE's Vision 21 Research and Development Program - Phase 1 by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Committee to Review DOE's Vision 21 R&D Program -- Phase 1