By Jeffrey C. Carrier, John A. Musick, Michael R. Heithaus
Because the award-winning first quantity, The Biology of Sharks and Their relations, released in 2004, the sphere has witnessed super advancements in learn, speedy advances in expertise, and the emergence of recent investigators starting to discover problems with biodiversity, distribution, body structure, and ecology in ways in which eluded extra conventional experiences. As a completely new significant other quantity, Sharks and Their kin II: Biodiversity, Adaptive body structure, and Conservation brings you on top of things on those major adjustments, in particular interpreting how elasmobranch fishes – the sharks, skates, rays, and chimaeras – effectively live to tell the tale in a variety of habitats. Emphasizes Conservation of Threatened Species This multidisciplinary quantity starts via interpreting elasmobranch biodiversity styles and their built-in sensory structures. It then explores the physiological variations – from specified sensory modalities to compensatory mechanisms for physiological and environmental pressure – that make those animals rather well-suited for the variety of habitats the place they're chanced on, in either oceanic and freshwater nation-states. gains tested Researchers and Introduces New Pioneers within the FieldThe booklet then considers the human interactions and anthropogenic results on around the world elasmobranch populations and the capability extinction hazards posed by way of expanding threats from adjustments in habitat, adjustments in water chemistry, and starting to be advertisement exploitation. this article really is unmatched by way of insurance and clarity, and it's a must-have reference for marine biologists, fishery scientists, oceanographers, and likewise marine, zoo, and aquarium veterinarians. to handle topic components and subdisciplines the place assurance was once absent or superficial in quantity one, Jeffrey provider and co-workers have assembled within the present quantity a suite of works that show styles of biodiversity, the physiological attributes that give a contribution to elasmobranchs’ profitable exploitation of oceanic and freshwater geographical regions, and the original matters linked to the interplay among elasmobranchs and people, all of this with overarching consciousness to problems with conservation. "We commence with chapters studying biodiversity. we now have selected to process this dialogue through featuring elasmobranchs as population of the diversity of zoogeographic provinces, figuring out that major overlap could happen for extra pelagic species. This recognition was once mirrored within the discussion that happened in the course of practise of the booklet among our bankruptcy authors, and the popularity that many species easily can't be restricted to a particular habitat or diversity of habitats. We then proceed via analyzing a number of the specified physiological diversifications that permit those animals to use the variety of habitats the place they're stumbled on, from specified sensory modalities to compensatory mechanisms for physiological and environmental rigidity. "Our concluding part offers a few of the demanding situations confronted via contributors of those teams. we now have requested our authors to think about human interactions and anthropogenic results on world wide populations and the capability extinction dangers posed from survival below expanding threats from alterations in habitat, adjustments in water chemistry, and extending advertisement exploitation. Conservation of species lower than probability is still a subject in the course of the booklet. "Our authors symbolize a global workforce of investigators together with validated scientists whose paintings has been greatly released and revered, and rising more youthful scientists who've exploited fresh advances in expertise to invite and solution new questions in addition to supplying new insights and interpretations to enduring difficulties within the fields of ecology and body structure. we've got requested them to be speculative and tough, and now we have requested them to foretell destiny parts for research in hopes that their paintings will either motivate and galvanize extra experiences of those interesting animals." - from the Preface
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Extra resources for Sharks and Their Relatives II: Biodiversity, Adaptive Physiology, and Conservation (Marine Biology)
Based on tagging and genetic data, northeast and northwest Atlantic populations of the shortfin mako appear to be separate, at least for management purposes, with little exchange between them. Several fisheries stocks of this species probably occur across the other oceans (Heist 2008). In the salmon shark, the western side of the North Pacific is male dominated and the eastern side female dominated; dominance increases with latitude as does size (Goldman and Musick 2008). Satellite tracking of salmon sharks has demonstrated seasonal migrations from subarctic to temperate and subtropical regions of up to 18,220 km that are associated with feeding or reproduction.
However, the majority of the catch of makos and threshers is taken incidentally by longlines and gillnets directed at tuna and billfish (Holts et al. 1998). Consequently the magnitude of the catch and mortality is not reflected in catch statistics. Stevens (2000) estimated that 12,500 metric tons (mt) of shortfin mako were caught by longline fleets in the Pacific in 1994, and Babcock and Nakano (2008) reported that about 10,000 mt were caught by tuna fleets in the Atlantic in 1995. Other annual catches from smaller areas or more specific fisheries are generally between 20 and 800 mt (Mejuto 1985; Muñoz-Chápuli et al.
1) and (b) globally assessed chondrichthyan fishes (n = 591) within each IUCN Red List category. CR = Critically Endangered, EN = Endangered, VU = Vulnerable, NT = Near Threatened, LC = Least Concern, DD = Data Deficient. © 2010 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC Epipelagic Oceanic Elasmobranchs 27 (the inflection point on the population growth curve). Multivariate statistics were used to produce the integrated results. According to this analysis, the species at highest risk from longline fisheries were makos (both shortfin and longfin), bigeye thresher, and to a lesser extent silky sharks.
Sharks and Their Relatives II: Biodiversity, Adaptive Physiology, and Conservation (Marine Biology) by Jeffrey C. Carrier, John A. Musick, Michael R. Heithaus