By Anthony Everitt
From the acclaimed writer of Augustus, Cicero, and the increase of Rome, an exciting and richly informative miscellany of evidence approximately Rome and the Roman world
SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus. have you learnt to what use the Romans positioned the excrement of the kingfisher? Or why a cocktail party invitation from the emperor Domitian was once this sort of terrifying prospect? Or why Roman girls smelled so strange? The solutions to those questions are available during this compendium of awesome proof and anecdotes approximately historical Rome and its Empire. The 500-odd entries diversity throughout each zone of Roman existence and society, from the Empress Livia's treatment for tonsillitis to the main trustworthy Roman equipment of birth control.
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You will observe ﬁrst that while we begin with the categorical imperative as found in the Groundwork, this short work is only one of the three parts of our study of Kant. Now certainly the Groundwork is important, but it fails to give an adequate account of Kant’s moral doctrine as a whole. What it does provide is a reasonably full analytic account of the moral law by developing “the concept of morality” implicit in our commonsense moral judgments. ” What he means in saying this is that it still remains to be shown that the moral law has “objective reality”: that is, that it is not a mere concept but actually can and does apply to us.
I think that for Hume, all kinds of passions may specify ultimate, or ﬁnal, ends; for example, benevolence and kindness to children, pride and shame, our general appetite to good as well as our sense of beauty, and much else, can all specify such ends. . Second, we see that there are many possible different stopping points given by the passions. The aims of the passions are many, and there is no single end, not even that of aiming at pleasure and avoiding pain. Hume’s view is not, I believe, hedonistic; nor is it egoistic (see Enquiry, Appendix II, –, on self-love, where he essentially accepts Bishop Butler’s criticism of the doctrine of self-love in Sermons, XI and XII ).
In saying that Hume’s view is neither hedonistic nor egoistic, I mean the aims and objectives of passions are neither hedonistic nor egoistic. . Third, the process of deliberation (practical reasoning) may correct our existing passions in at least two ways: [ ] (a) If we desire to do X in order to Y, we may be brought no longer to desire to do X when by reasoning we see that X won’t bring about Y. We may then desire to do Z (something else) instead. This correction via means-to-ends reasoning subtracts one desire and adds another to what we may call the conﬁguration of our passions.
SPQR: A Roman Miscellany by Anthony Everitt