By Prof. Dr. Roberto Lanza, Dr. Antonio Meloni (auth.)
This ebook experiences the final features of the Earth’s magnetic box and the magnetic houses of minerals, after which introduces the multifold functions of geomagnetism in Earth sciences. The authors learn the contribution of geomagnetism either usually geological fields, reminiscent of tectonics and geodynamics, and in utilized ones, resembling prospecting and pollutants. The e-book is designed to supply a common assessment of geomagnetism, and an realizing of the contributions this department of technological know-how makes within the really expert sectors of Earth sciences.
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Additional info for The Earth’s Magnetism: An Introduction for Geologists
The width of the interested region is ≈4° in latitude, return currents north and south of the eastward current are a common feature of the EEJ. The intensity of the EEJ varies from day to day. 46 CHAPTER 1 · The Earth’s Magnetic Field Fig. 22. Latitudinal variation of Sq for the three magnetic elements D, H and Z as observed on average at the indicated magnetic observatories (from Campbell 2003) An in-depth study of the daily variation morphology has shown the existence of a weak component which is a function of the lunar time rather than solar.
The remaining 1/3 of the variation is of internal origin and is due to electrical currents produced by electromagnetic induction in the Earth’s interior probably extending down to a depth of about 800 km, by the varying external magnetic field. The Sq amplitude changes during the seasons with a summer maximum and a winter minimum at high and mid latitudes, and with a maximum at the equinoxes in the inter-tropical zone for H and Z (Fig. 22). Moreover Sq amplitude depends on the phase of the sunspot cycle with the quietest levels occurring around minimum sunspot number years.
This consideration will let us estimate such contributions separately. It is important to note, however, that from the distribution of measurements of the X and Y components on the Earth’s surface, we can obtain two independent evaluations of gnm and hnm. 2 Methods for gnm and hnm Computation In the last twenty years or so new methods of analysis have brought to sophisticated procedures for the computation of Gauss coefficients from magnetic measurements. For many years however a very simple and intuitive procedure was used.
The Earth’s Magnetism: An Introduction for Geologists by Prof. Dr. Roberto Lanza, Dr. Antonio Meloni (auth.)