By Gregory Hanlon
The Hero of Italy examines a salient episode in Italy's Thirty Years' conflict with Spain and France, wherein the younger duke Odoardo Farnese of Parma embraced the French alliance, basically to adventure defeat and career after tumultuous years (1635-1637). Gregory Hanlon stresses the narrative of occasions unfolding in northern Italy, interpreting the participation of the little nation in those epic ecu events.
The first bankruptcy describes the structure of Cardinal Richelieu's anti-Habsburg alliance and Odoardo's eagerness to be a part of it. A bankruptcy at the Parman specialist military, in keeping with a unprecedented choice of corporation roster-books, sheds mild at the id of over 13,000 participants, soldier by means of soldier, the starting place and heritage in their officials, the stipulations in their accommodations, and the great country in their gear. bankruptcy 3 follows the 1st crusade of 1635 along French and Savoyard contingents on the failed siege of Valenza, and the logistical problems of organizing such large-scale operations. one other bankruptcy examines the monetary expedients the duchy followed to fend off incursions on all its borders in 1636, and the way defense force contingents on each side have been drawn into the battling. a last bankruptcy relates the Spanish invasion and career which compelled duke Odoardo to make a separate peace. the amount features a distinctive evaluation of the impression of struggle on civilians in accordance with parish registers for urban and kingdom. the appliance of the legislation of struggle used to be mostly nullified by means of frequent hunger, ailment and regimen sex-selective infanticide. those quantitative analyses, supported by means of maps and tables, are one of the so much distinctive at any place in Europe within the period of the Thirty Years' War.
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Extra resources for The Hero of Italy: Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma, his Soldiers, and his Subjects in the Thirty Years’ War
92 AGS, Estado 3832, Consulta 4 July 1633. 93 AGS, Estado 3833, Consulta 18 February 1634, discussing a letter from Cardinal Borja dated 8 December 1633. (Paris, 1970), vol. 1, 142–9; Jaitner, ‘The popes and the struggle for power during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries’, in 1648: War and Peace in Europe, ed. K. Bussmann and H. Schilling, 2 vols. (Munster-Osnabruck, 1998), vol. 1, 61–7. 95 Auguste Leman, Urbain VIII et la rivalité de la France et de la Maison d’Autriche de 1631 à 1635 (Paris, 1920), 312.
In the Farnese territories themselves, it was not permitted for people to voice their apprehensions about the military escalation, but we hear echoes of their discontent all the same. Andrea Pugolotti’s hugely informative diary records the assembly of all the mercenary infantry in the ducal garden of Parma on 22 October 1634, and the mustering of the cavalry the following day to welcome Marshal Créquy en route to Rome. Odoardo went out to meet the French general with all the nobility and cavalry of Parma, while guns fired from the citadel, and both the mercenaries and the militia lined the streets.
63 France would never relinquish the great stronghold to him without solid guarantees of continued good conduct. During one of the French army’s forays into Piedmont, the fortress of Pinerolo fell to Marshal Créquy, ensuring an easy French avenue into northern Italy in the future. The peace agreement with Spain hinged upon the return of Pinerolo to Savoy before the Habsburg troops were withdrawn from the theatre of war, but Richelieu had purchased the compliance of the Savoyard governor of the place, who had hidden French soldiers in the bowels of the fortress.
The Hero of Italy: Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma, his Soldiers, and his Subjects in the Thirty Years’ War by Gregory Hanlon