By Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak, Alwyn C. Scott
What's awareness? fresh makes an attempt to respond to this query have encouraged interdisciplinary meetings backed via the college of Arizona in Tucson. the 1st quantity of towards a technological know-how of cognizance is now thought of a source publication for the rising box. This quantity offers a variety of invited papers from the second one convention, held in April 1996. The book's fifteen sections reveal the large diversity of fields now targeting awareness. The sections comprise philosophy, cognitive technological know-how, medication, neurobiology, neural correlates, imaginative and prescient, sleep and dreaming, anesthesia, molecular biology and evolution, quantum concept, spacetime, hierarchial association, and experiential methods. each one part is preceded through an summary and observation. The contributors contain Bernard Baars, Ned Block, David J. Chalmers, Patricia S. Churchland, Daniel C. Dennett, Jeffrey grey, Daniel Hillis, J. Allan Hobson, Stephen LaBerge, Jaron Lanier, Daniel S. Levine, Nikos ok. Logothetis, Gary E. Schwartz, John R. Searle, Roger N. Shepard, Henry P. Stapp, Petra Stoerig, Charles T. Tart, John Taylor, Francisco J. Varela, Max Velmans, Roger Walsh, and Lawrence Weiskantz.
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Extra info for Toward a Science of Consciousness II: The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates
Of course, in this trivial sense, we could. We could also redefine the word "consciousness" to mean the neurobiological causes of our subjective experiences. But if we did these things, we would have the subjective experiences left over. The point of having the concept of consciousness is to have a word to name the subjective experiences. The other reductions were based on carving off the subjective experience of heat and color and redefining the notion in terms of the causes of the experiences.
It would be a fascinating exercise in intellectual history to trace the vicissitudes of the objectivesubjective distinction. In Descartes's writings in the seventeenth century, "objective" meant nearly the opposite of its current meaning. 2 Sometime between the seventeenth century and the present the objective-subjective distinction rolled over in bed. Page 19 For present purposes, we need to distinguish between the epistemic sense of the objective-subjective distinction and the ontological sense of the distinction.
The proof is that for any apparent explanation in terms of consciousness a more fundamental explanation can be given in terms of neurobiology. For every explanation of the form, for example, my conscious decision to raise my arm caused my arm to go up, there is a more fundamental explanation in terms of motor neurons, acetylcholine, and the like. Answer to Thesis 5 It might turn out that in our final scientific account of the biology of conscious organisms, the consciousness of these organisms plays only a small or negligible role in their life and survival.
Toward a Science of Consciousness II: The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates by Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak, Alwyn C. Scott